Summary of the experimental and largely clinical evidence that implicates aluminum as a primary etiological factor in Alzheimer’s disease. The unequivocal neurotoxicity of aluminum must mean that when brain burdens of aluminum exceed toxic thresholds that it is inevitable that aluminum contributes toward disease. Aluminum acts as a catalyst for an earlier onset of Alzheimer’s disease in individuals with or without concomitant predispositions, genetic or otherwise. Alzheimer’s disease is not an inevitable consequence of aging in the absence of a brain burden of aluminum.
Aluminum, a contaminant of commercial intravenous-feeding solutions, is potentially neurotoxic. We investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to intravenous aluminum on the neurologic development of infants born prematurely.
Many vaccines contain aluminum adjuvants. When my son was born, I chose to delay and selectively vaccinate. When he was 4 months old, a nurse gave him the Pediarix vaccine without my permission. It has 850 mcg aluminum (hydroxide) in it, more than any other vaccine. One month later I came back to have Prevnar (pneumococcal) and Hib administered.
Here is the Toxicological Profile on Aluminum, prepared by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, or ATSDR.
Evidence for the neurotoxicity of extended exposure to low levels of aluminum salts is described using an animal model treated with aluminum at low levels reflecting those found in found in some water supplies. Emphasis is given to the potential role of aluminum in acceleration and promotion of some indices characteristic of brain aging. These hallmarks include the appearance of excess levels of inflammation in specific brain areas. Aluminum salts can increase levels of glial activation, inflammatory cytokines and amyloid precursor protein within the brain. Both normal brain aging and to a greater extent, Alzheimer’s disease are associated with elevated basal levels of markers for inflammation. These are not attributable to obvious exogenous stimuli and may reflect the lifespan history of the organism’s immune responses. It is possible that aluminum salts can act as a subtle promoter of such apparently unprovoked responses.
Aluminum is one of the most common metal elements in the earth's crust. It is not an essential element for life and has commonly been thought of as a rather inert and insoluble mineral. Therefore, it has often been regarded as not posing a significant health hazard. In consequence, aluminum-containing agents been used in many food processing steps and also in removal by flocculation of particulate organic matter from water. In recent years, acid rain has tended to mobilize aluminum-containing minerals into a more soluble form, ionic Al(3+), which has found their way into many reservoirs that constitute residential drinking water resources. As a result, the human body burden of aluminum has increased. Epidemiological studies suggest that aluminum may not be as innocuous as was previously thought and that aluminum may actively promote the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiological data is strengthened by experimental evidence of aluminum exposure leading to excess inflammatory activity within the brain. Such apparently irrelevant immune activity unprovoked by an exogenous infectious agent characterizes the aging brain and is even more pronounced in several neurodegenerative diseases. The causation of most of these age-related neurological disorders is not understood but since they are generally not genetic, one must assume that their development is underlain by unknown environmental factors. There is an increasing and coherent body of evidence that implicates aluminum as being one such significant factor. Evidence is outlined supporting the concept of aluminum's involvement in hastening brain aging. This acceleration would then inevitably lead to increased incidence of specific age-related neurological diseases.
The present in vivo study was designed to investigate the toxic potential of fluoride alone and in conjugation with aluminum on the rat brain. The region-specific response of both elements was studied in different regions of brain, namely the cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. Following fluoride exposure, oxidative stress increased significantly, estimated by increased lipid peroxidation and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. The neurotransmitter (e.g., dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) content was also altered. However, these aspects were more pronounced in animals given fluoride and aluminum together. Histological evidence showed deprivation of neuronal integrity with higher magnitude in concurrent fluoride and aluminum exposure, as compared to fluoride alone. Thus, it can be concluded that aluminum appears to enhance the neurotoxic hazards caused by fluoride.
Reactions to adsorbed diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine have mostly been attributed to the pertussis organisms or pertussis components in the vaccine. Nevertheless reactions may also be due to other factors such as sensitization induced by aluminium adjuvants and impurities present in crude toxoids that cannot be removed by purification of toxoids after formalinization. Aluminium compounds such as aluminium phosphate and aluminium hydroxide are the most commonly used adjuvants with vaccines for human use. Due to the increasing concern about the toxicity of aluminium, other adjuvants like calcium phosphate may be evaluated as an alternative to aluminium adjuvants. To minimize reactions after immunization with DPT vaccine due to impurities in the toxoids, the use of toxoided purified toxins is suggested.
Aluminium (Al) oxyhydroxide (Alhydrogel®), the main adjuvant licensed for human and animal vaccines, consists of primary nanoparticles that spontaneously agglomerate. Concerns about its safety emerged following recognition of its unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence within immune cells in some individuals, and reports of chronic fatigue syndrome, cognitive dysfunction, myalgia, dysautonomia and autoimmune/inflammatory features temporally linked to multiple Al-containing vaccine administrations. Mouse experiments have documented its capture and slow transportation by monocyte-lineage cells from the injected muscle to lymphoid organs and eventually the brain. The present study aimed at evaluating mouse brain function and Al concentration 180days after injection of various doses of Alhydrogel® (200, 400 and 800μg Al/kg of body weight) in the tibialis anterior muscle in adult female CD1 mice. Cognitive and motor performances were assessed by 8 validated tests, microglial activation by Iba-1 immunohistochemistry, and Al level by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. An unusual neuro-toxicological pattern limited to a low dose of Alhydrogel® was observed. Neurobehavioural changes, including decreased activity levels and altered anxiety-like behaviour, were observed compared to controls in animals exposed to 200μg Al/kg but not at 400 and 800μg Al/kg. Consistently, microglial number appeared increased in the ventral forebrain of the 200μg Al/kg group. Cerebral Al levels were selectively increased in animals exposed to the lowest dose, while muscle granulomas had almost completely disappeared at 6 months in these animals. We conclude that Alhydrogel® injected at low dose in mouse muscle may selectively induce long-term Al cerebral accumulation and neurotoxic effects. To explain this unexpected result, an avenue that could be explored in the future relates to the adjuvant size since the injected suspensions corresponding to the lowest dose, but not to the highest doses, exclusively contained small agglomerates in the bacteria-size range known to favour capture and, presumably, transportation by monocyte-lineage cells. In any event, the view that Alhydrogel® neurotoxicity obeys "the dose makes the poison" rule of classical chemical toxicity appears overly simplistic