On a good day, my shoulders, knees, and hips will dislocate two to five times apiece. The slightest bump into a table or door will bloom new bruises on my arms and legs or tear a gash in the thin skin on my hands. My blood pressure will plummet each time I stand, making me feel woozy, nauseated, and weak. I’ll have trouble focusing and remembering words. I’ll run my errands from underneath an umbrella to prevent an allergic reaction to the Sun.
I have Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS), and Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS)—a trifecta of weird diseases. POTS, EDS, and MCAS are so obscure that many doctors have never even heard of them. But a 2016 study published in Nature Genetics might help change that: Researchers have found a genetic mutation that links all three conditions.
As concerns about health epidemics plague the nation, demand and sales of diet soda have plunged as consumers try to make better choices. As we reported, aspartame (the main sweetener for diet soda) is one of the most dangerous ingredients used in our food supply, causing seizures and a host of other health issues.
In a new study done over ten years and sampling 60,000 women, it was shown that women who drink two or more diet drinks a day have much higher cardiovascular disease rates and are more likely to die from the disease.
How host and microbial factors combine to structure gut microbial communities remains incompletely understood. Redox potential is an important environmental feature affected by both host and microbial actions. We assessed how antibiotics, which can impact host and microbial function, change redox state and how this contributes to post-antibiotic succession. We showed gut redox potential increased within hours of an antibiotic dose in mice. Host and microbial functioning changed under treatment, but shifts in redox potentials could be attributed specifically to bacterial suppression in a host-free ex vivo human gut microbiota model. Redox dynamics were linked to blooms of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae. Ecological succession to pre-treatment composition was associated with recovery of gut redox, but also required dispersal from unaffected gut communities. As bacterial competition for electron acceptors can be a key ecological factor structuring gut communities, these results support the potential for manipulating gut microbiota through managing bacterial respiration.
The paravascular pathway, also known as the “glymphatic” pathway, is a recently described system for waste clearance in the brain. According to this model, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the paravascular spaces surrounding penetrating arteries of the brain, mixes with interstitial fluid (ISF) and solutes in the parenchyma, and exits along paravascular spaces of draining veins. Studies have shown that metabolic waste products and solutes, including proteins involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyloid-beta, may be cleared by this pathway. Consequently, a growing body of research has begun to explore the association between glymphatic dysfunction and various disease states. However, significant controversy exists in the literature regarding both the direction of waste clearance as well as the anatomical space in which the waste-fluid mixture is contained. Some studies have found no evidence of interstitial solute clearance along the paravascular space of veins. Rather, they demonstrate a perivascular pathway in which waste is cleared from the brain along an anatomically distinct perivascular space in a direction opposite to that of paravascular flow. Although possible explanations have been offered, none have been able to fully reconcile the discrepancies in the literature, and many questions remain. Given the therapeutic potential that a comprehensive understanding of brain waste clearance pathways might offer, further research and clarification is highly warranted.
White matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with dementia and include white matter hyperintensities (WMH; also termed leukoaraiosis) and visible perivascular spaces (PVS). We review the potential role of impaired drainage of interstitial fluid in the pathogenesis of WMH and PVS. Whereas the volume of extracellular space in the grey matter is tightly controlled, fluid accumulates and expands the extracellular spaces of the white matter in acute hydrocephalus, vasogenic edema and WMH. Although there are no conventional lymphatic vessels in the brain, there is very effective lymphatic drainage for fluid and solutes along restricted pathways in the basement membranes of cerebral capillaries and arteries in young individuals. Lymphatic drainage of the brain is impaired with age and in association with apolipoprotein E ε4, risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Deposition of proteins in the lymphatic drainage pathways in the walls of cerebral arteries with age is recognized as protein elimination failure angiopathy (PEFA), as in CAA and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Facilitating perivascular lymphatic drainage from the aging brain may play a significant role in the prevention of CAA, WMH and Alzheimer's disease and may enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease.
The glymphatic system is a recently discovered macroscopic waste clearance system that utilizes a unique system of perivascular channels, formed by astroglial cells, to promote efficient elimination of soluble proteins and metabolites from the central nervous system. Besides waste elimination, the glymphatic system may also function to help distribute non-waste compounds, such as glucose, lipids, amino acids, and neurotransmitters related to volume transmission, in the brain. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system function mainly during sleep and is largely disengaged during wakefulness. The biological need for sleep across all species may therefore reflect that the brain must enter a state of activity that enables elimination of potentially neurotoxic waste products, including β-amyloid. Since the concept of the glymphatic system is relatively new, we will here review its basic structural elements, organization, regulation, and functions. We will also discuss recent studies indicating that glymphatic function is suppressed in various diseases and that failure of glymphatic function in turn might contribute to pathology in neurodegenerative disorders, traumatic brain injury and stroke.
The central nervous system (CNS) is unique in being the only organ system lacking lymphatic vessels to assist in the removal of interstitial metabolic waste products. Recent work has led to the discovery of the glymphatic system, a glial-dependent perivascular network that subserves a pseudo-lymphatic function in the brain. Within the glymphatic pathway, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters brain via periarterial spaces, passes into the interstitium via perivascular astrocytic aquaporin-4, and then drives the perivenous drainage of interstitial fluid (ISF) and its solute. Here we review the role of the glymphatic pathway in CNS physiology, factors known to regulate glymphatic flow, and pathologic processes where a breakdown of glymphatic CSF-ISF exchange has been implicated in disease initiation and progression. Important areas of future research, including manipulation of glymphatic activity aiming to improve waste clearance and therapeutic agent delivery, will also be discussed.
Many things cause oxidative stress. The body responds to things that endanger the body by oxidizing it. It secrete something called Reactive Oxygen Species. The end products are things like hydroxy radicals, peroxynitrites, and many other forms of oxidated products. They are designed to destroy things like pathogens or toxins that enter the body. Some toxins like mercury, aluminum,fluoride and the toxins in vaccine adjuvants are very difficult to remove from the body so they set off an endless cycle of oxidative stress. This can result in severe damage to the body. It can cause erosion of our gut, it can cause our blood brain barrier to become porous which leave things that could not normally access the brain to have dramatic effects. The blood brain barrier is difficult to cross, most chemicals and pathogens cannot cross it unless it has been compromised.
The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells and macromolecules from the CNS to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. The exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the CSF to the lymphatics remain, however, poorly understood. Here we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow.