This case describes antibody-verified anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis in a previously healthy 7 month-old infant female presenting within 48 hours of receiving an influenza booster vaccination during her first influenza season.
A study of the literature on the long-term effects of multiple
immunization over a prolonged period. Except for a small
(approximately 99 persons) follow-up of Fort Detrick personnel,
studies were not directly pertinent to the question. Recommendations
are made for newer screening studies which might be undertaken
on larger groups to resolve this question.
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder. The cause of this disease is often unknown, and previous studies revealed that it might be caused by a virus, vaccine or tumor. It occurs more often in females than in males. Several cases were reported to be related to vaccination such as the H1N1 vaccine and tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines. In this study, we reported an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis case that may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. To investigate the association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and vaccination, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the microRNAs, which significantly regulate these vaccine viruses or bacteria, and the phylogenetic relationship of these viruses and bacteria. This reveals that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination, as well as H1N1 vaccination or tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccinations, from the phylogenetic viewpoint.
Since the implementation of the mass vaccination campaign against hepatitis B in France, the appearance of multiple sclerosis, sometimes occurring in the aftermath of vaccinations, led to the publication of epidemiological international studies. This was also justified by the sharp increase in the annual incidence of multiple sclerosis reported to the French health insurance in the mid-1990s. Almost 20 years later, a retrospective reflection can be sketched from these official data and also from the national pharmacovigilance agency. Statistical data from these latter sources seem to show a significant correlation between the number of hepatitis B vaccinations performed and the declaration to the pharmacovigilance of multiple sclerosis occurring between 1 and 2 years later. The application of the Hill’s criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between hepatitis B vaccine and multiple sclerosis may be causal.
The objective of this article is to identify common and atypical features of systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosed following hepatitis B vaccination. We analyzed retrospectively the medical records of 10 systemic lupus erythematosus patients from different centers, who developed the disease following hepatitis B vaccination and determined the prevalence of different manifestations and the time association to vaccination. In this case series, 80% of the patients were female, mean age 35 +/- 9 years, of which 20% received one inoculation, 20% received two doses and 60% received all three inoculations. The mean latency period from the first hepatitis B virus immunization and onset of autoimmune symptoms was 56.3 days. All patients were diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus, according to the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria within 1 year. The prevalence of some systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations was typical and included involvement of the joints (100%), skin (80%), muscles (60%) and photosensitivity (30%). Other symptoms differed in this unique group of systemic lupus erythematosus patients such as low rate of kidney and hematologic involvement, and a relatively high rate of hepatitis (20%). Neurological (80%) and pulmonary (70%) symptoms were also common in this group. Data from this case-series, and previously documented cases in the literature could only show a temporal relation between hepatitis B vaccination and the appearance of systemic lupus erythematosus. Systemic lupus erythematosus related to vaccine may differ from idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus in its clinical presentation and may resemble drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus. Thus, physicians should be alerted to this potential association, its possible long latency period and unique presentations, and be encouraged to report and analyze these cases.
Neurologic complications from varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation are rare. In this article, we describe a previously immunized child who developed herpes zoster with meningitis. Vaccine strain of VZV was recovered from a skin swab and the cerebrospinal fluid. Reactivation of the vaccine strain of VZV should be recognized as a potential cause of meningitis in children.
Many cell lines used for vaccine production have a potentially strong tumorigenic character. Some of those routinely used need to be checked at different passage numbers for this characteristic. Using HeLa cell cultures as positive controls, and primary canine kidney cell (CKC) or feline kidney cell (FKC) cultures purified in vitro on passage three as negative controls, the tumorigenicity of VERO cell sublines was tested in 219 nude mice. The master cell stocks (MCS) and working cell banks (WCB) of eight strains of VERO African green monkey kidney cell (AGMKC) line used for canine, feline and mink vaccine preparation were established in China. The hypo-tetra-ploid JA or hyper-diploid KA strain of VERO line was highly tumorigenic. These data showed a variable chromosome karyotype of VERO line, and contraindicated the use of JA or KA strain of VERO line for the preparation of attenuated viral vaccines. JA or KA strain of VERO line could be a substitute for HeLa line as a positive-control malignant tumor (MT) cell model. The non-carcinogenic YB, JC, M and JB strains of VERO line were therefore selected for the preparation of modified live rabies viral vaccine in place of BHK-21. The cell sub-lines are comparatively stable in terms of their heritable characters, and show little significant changes between passages. In summary, we have found that: 1) the tumorigenicity of cell line is different among different-karyotypic cells; 2) it is the genetic characteristics of chromosomes of cell lines that determines their tumorigenicity, but with species-specific carcinogenicity; 3) the chromosome number variation of cell lines has positive relationship with their carcinogenesis; 4) highly variable strains of tumor cell line can be selected quickly and successfully in nude mice by alternate cultivation in vitro and in vivo. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) was evolved in nude mice inoculated with violently variable HeLa or VERO cells. The importance of assessing the tumorigenicity in cell sublines used for vaccine production is emphasised.
naphylaxis after immunization, although rare, is serious and potentially life-threatening. Understanding risk factors for this reaction is therefore important. Gelatin is added to many vaccines as a heat stabilizer. Japanese researchers have demonstrated a strong association between immediate hypersensitivity reactions to measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and Japanese encephalitis immunizations and subsequent detection of anti-gelatin immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. They suggested that previous receipt by these patients of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines with trace amounts of gelatin was responsible for the sensitization. We aimed to assess whether a similar association exists for vaccinees in the United States who reported anaphylaxis after receipt of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) or measles vaccines and to review recent trends in reporting of hypersensitivity reactions.